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Aphanius baeticus

Fish of Doñana

By José Antonio Sánchez Iglesias

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The high environmental heterogeneity of Doñana, resulting in a great variety of aquatic ecosystems with different conditions of salinity, turbidity, seasonality and humanization, has encouraged the development of a rich fish community. Some species are sedentary, completing their life cycle in Doñana, others only spend part of their lives in the area, while the group of migratory species only use the aquatic ecosystems of Doñana on their movements between the sea and the river. Another good number of species only occur occasionally in Doñana.

The conservation status of our fish community is rather poor. Among the migratory species two extinct species stand out: the European Sea Sturgeon (acipenser sturio) and the Allis Shad (alosa alosa). Two more, the Sea Lamprey (petromyzon marinus) and the Twait Shad (alosa fallax), are critically endangered. In the sedentary group we can mention the extinct Three-spined Stickleback (gasterosteus gymnurus) and two others, the Iberian Chub (squalius pyrenaicus) and the Iberian Killifish, (aphanius baeticus), recently described as a new species, are on the verge of extinction.

The initial list was obtained from the web site www.cuadernosdecampo.es, but this has been corrected, supplemented and updated with other sources among which stand out Listado sobre la Biodiversidad de Doñana (CSIC-OAPN 2005) and the chapter on fish, written by Carlos Fernández Delgado, in the publication Doñana: Agua y Biosfera (García-Novo, F. / Marín-Cabrera, C. – CHG 2005), da highly recommended reading for the great analysis made of the conservation status of our fish and the reasons for the regression or disappearance of some of the species.

ACTINOPTERYGII
Ord. Acipenseriformes
Fam. Acipenseridae
001.    Acipenser sturio. European sea sturgeon. Considered to be extinct from Doñana.

Ord. Anguilliformes
Fam. Anguillidae
002.    Anguilla anguilla. European eel.

Fam. Congridae
003.    Conger conger. European conger.

Fam. Ophichthidae
004.    Echelus myrus. Blunt snout snake eel.
005.    Ophisurus serpens. Serpent eel.

Ord. Atheriniformes
Fam. Atherinidae
006.    Atherina boyeri. Big-scale sand smelt.

Ord. Batrachoidiformes
Fam. Batrachoididae
007.    Halobatrachus didactylus. Lusitanian toadfish.

Ord. Beloniformes
Fam. Belonidae
008.    Belone belone. Garfish.

Fam. Hemiramphidae
009.    Hyporhamphus picarti. African halfbeak.

Ord. Clupeiformes
Fam. Clupeidae
010.    Alosa alosa. Allis shad. Extinct from Doñana.
011.    Alosa fallax nilotica. Twaite shad. Critically endangered in Doñana.
012.    Sardina pilchardus. European pilchard.
013.    Sardinella aurita. Round sardinella.

Fam. Engraulidae
014.    Engraulis encrasicolus. European anchovy.

Ord. Cypriniformes (fresh water fish)
Fam. Cobitidae
015.    Cobitis paludica. Ray-finned fish. Endemic in the Iberian Peninsula y endangered in Doñana.

Fam. Cyprinidae
016.    Luciobarbus sclateri. Andalusian barbel. Endemic in the Iberian Peninsula and endangered in Doñana.
017.    Carassius auratus. Goldfish. Introduced in the XIX century.
018.    Pseudochondrostoma polylepis. Iberian nase. Iberian endemism.
019.    Pseudochondrostoma willkommii. Guadiana nase. Endemic in the southwestern quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula.
020.    Cyprinus carpio. Carpa /Common carp. Introduced in the XIX century.
021.    Squalius pyrenaicus. Iberian Chub. Endemic in the Iberian Peninsula and critically endangered in Doñana.
022.    Iberochondrostoma lemmingii. Iberian ray-finned fish. Endemic in the south- western quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula.

Ord. Cyprinodontiformes (freshwater fish)
Fam. Cyprinodontidae
023.    Aphanius baeticus. Iberian Killifish. Endémico de Doñana y en peligro crítico de extinción.

Fam. Fundulidae
024.    Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus. Mud minnows. American species introduced to the marshes in the 70’s to fight mosquitoes.

Fam. Poeciliidae
025.    Gambusia holbrooki. Eastern mosquitofish. American species introduced to the marshes in the 20´s to fight mosquitoes.

Ord. Esociformes
Fam. Esocidae
026.    Esox lucius. Northern pike.

Ord. Gadiformes
Fam. Gadidae
027.    Trisopterus luscus. Pouting.
028.    Gadus morhua. Atlantic cod.

Fam. Merlucciidae
029.    Merluccius merluccius. European hake.

Fam. Phycidae
030.    Phycis phycis. Common forkbeard.

Ord. Gasterosteiformes
Fam. Gasterosteidae
031.    Gasterosteus aculeatus. Three-spined stickleback. Considered to be extinct from Doñana (fresh water fish).

Ord. Perciformes
Fam. Ammodytidae
032.    Ammodytes tobianus. Lesser sand eel.

Fam. Blenniidae
033.    Blennius fluviatilis. Freshwater blenny (freshwater fish).
034.    Salaria pavo. Peacock blenny.
035.    Lipophrys trigloides. Combtooth blenny.
036.    Parablennius gattorugine. Tompot blenny.

Fam. Bramidae
037.    Brama brama. Atlantic pomfret.

Fam. Callionymidae
038.    Callionymus maculatus. Spotted dragonet.
039.    Callionymus pusillus. Sailfin dragonet.
040.    Callionymus reticulatus. Reticulated dragonet.

Fam. Carangidae
041.    Caranx rhonchus. False scad.
042.    Lichia amia. Leerfish.
043.    Trachinotus ovatus. Derbio.
044.    Trachurus trachurus. Atlantic horse mackerel.

Fam. Centracanthidae
045.    Spicara flexuosa. Blotched picarel..
046.    Spicara maena.Picarel.

Fam. Centrarchidae (freshwater fish)
047.    Lepomis gibbosus. Pumpkinseed. North American species that colonized Doñana during the rainy years of 1996-97.
048.    Micropterus salmoides. Largemouth bass. Northamerican species introduced at
La Rocina Stream around 1970.

Fam. Cepolidae
049.    Cepola rubescens. Red bandfish.

Fam. Gobiidae
050.    Aphia minuta. Transparent goby.
051.    Gobius niger. Black goby. Cataloged as Vulnerable in Doñana.
052.    Gobius paganellus. Rock goby.
053.    Lesueurigobius sanzi. Gobio de Sanzo.
054.    Pomatoschistus microps. Common Goby. Cataloged as Least Concern in Doñana.
055.    Pomatoschistus minutus. Sand goby. Cataloged as Least Concern in Doñana.

Fam. Haemulidae
056.    Parapristipoma octolineatum. Guinean grunt.
057.    Plectorhinchus mediterraneus. Rubberlip grunt.
058.    Pomadasys incisus. Bigspine grunt..

Fam. Labridae
059.    Coris julis. Mediterranean rainbow wrasse.
060.    Symphodus bailloni. Bailon’s wrasse.
061.    Symphodus cinereus. Grey wrasse.

Fam. Moronidae
062.    Dicentrarchus labrax. European seabass.
063.    Dicentrarchus punctatus. Spotted seabass.

Fam. Mugilidae
064.    Chelon labrosus. Thicklip grey mullet.
065.    Liza aurata. Golden grey mullet.
066.    Liza saliens. Leaping mullet.
067.    Liza ramada. Thinlip mullet.
068.    Mugil cephalus. Flathead grey mullet.

Fam. Mullidae
069.    Mullus barbatus. Red mullet.
070.    Mullus surmuletus. Striped red mullet.

Fam. Pomatomidae
071.    Pomatomus saltatrix. Snapper, bluefish.

Fam. Sciaenidae
072.    Argyrosomus regius. Meagre, shade-fish, salmon-basse or stone basse.
073.    Umbrina canariensis. Canary drum.
074.    Umbrina cirrosa. Ombrine.

Fam. Scombridae
075.    Scomber japonicus. Chub mackerel.
076.    Scomber scombrus. Makerel, atlantic mackerel, Boston makerel.

Fam. Serranidae
077.    Serranus cabrilla. Comber.
078.    Serranus hepatus. Brown comber.
079.    Serranus scriba. Painted comber.

Fam. Sparidae
080.    Boops boops. Bogue.
081.    Dentex canariensis. Canary dentex.
082.    Dentex gibbosus. Pink dentex.
083.    Diplodus annularis. Annular seabream.
084.    Diplodus bellottii. Senegal seabream.
085.    Diplodus puntazzo. Sharpsnout seabream.
086.    Diplodus sargus. White seabream.
087.    Diplodus vulgaris. Common two-banded seabream.
088.    Lithognathus mormyrus. Striped seabream.
089.    Pagellus acarne. Spanish seabream, axillary seabream.
090.    Pagellus bellottii. Red pandora.
091.    Pagellus erythrinus. Common pandora.
092.    Pagrus auriga. Redbanded seabream.
093.    Pagrus pagrus.Red porgy
094.    Sarpa salpa. Salema porgy.
095.    Sparus aurata. Gilt-head bream.
096.    Spondyliosoma cantharus. Black seabream.

Fam. Sphyraenidae
097.    Sphyraena sphyraena. Barracuda.

Fam. Stromateidae
098.    Stromateus fiatola. Pomfret.

Fam. Trachinidae
099.    Echiichthys vipera. Lesser weever.
100.    Trachinus draco. Greater weever.

Fam. Uranoscopidae
101.    Uranoscopus scaber. Atlantic stargazer.

Ord. Pleuronectiformes
Fam. Bothidae
102.    Arnoglossus imperialis. Imperial scaldfish.
103.    Arnoglossus laterna. Mediterranean scaldfish.
104.    Arnoglossus thori. Thor’s scaldfish.
105.    Bothus podas. Wide-eyed flounder.

Fam. Citharidae
106.    Citharus linguatula. Spotted flounder.

Fam. Scophthalmidae
107.    Scophthalmus rhombus. Kite, brill.

Fam. Soleidae
108.    Buglossidium luteum. Solenette.
119.    Dicologlossa cuneata. Wedge sole.
110.    Dicologlossa hexophthalma.Ocellated wedge sole.
111.    Microchirus boscanion. Lusitanian sole.
112.    Pegusa lascaris. Sand sole.
113.    Solea senegalensis. Senegal sole.
114.    Solea solea . Common sole, slip.
115.    Synaptura lusitanica. Portuguese sole.

Ord. Salmoniformes
Fam. Salmonidae
116.    Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout. Introducida.

Ord. Scorpaeniformes
Fam. Scorpaenidae
117.    Scorpaena notata. Small red scorpionfish.

Fam. Triglidae
118.    Chelidonichthys obscurus. Long-finned gurnard.
119.    Chelidonichthys lucerna. Tub gurnard.
120.    Lepidotrigla cavillone. Large-scaled gurnard

Ord. Syngnathiformes
Fam. Syngnathidae
121.    Hippocampus hippocampus. Short-snouted seahorse.
122.    Hippocampus ramulosus. Long-snouted seahorse.
123.    Syngnathus abaster. Black-striped pipefish. Cataloged as Vulnerable in Doñana.
124.    Syngnathus acus. Greater pipefish. Cataloged as Vulnerable in Doñana.

Ord. Tetraodontiformes
Fam. Balistidae
125.    Balistes carolinensis. Grey triggerfish.

Fam. Tetraodontidae
126.    Sphoeroides spengleri. Bandtail puffer.

CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI
Ord. Petromyzontiformes
Fam. Petromyzontidae
127.    Petromyzon marinus. Sea lamprey, stone sucker. Critically endangered in Doñana.

CHONDRICHTHYES
Ord. Carcharhiniformes
Fam. Triakidae
128.    Galeorhinus galeus. School shark.
129.    Mustelus mustelus. Common smooth-hound.

Ord. Rajiformes
Fam. Dasyatidae
130.    Dasyatis pastinaca. Common stingray.

Fam. Gymnuridae
131.    Gymnura altavela. Spiny butterfly ray.

Fam. Myliobatidae
132.    Pteromylaeus bovinus. Bull ray.

Fam. Rajidae
133.    Raja asterias. Mediterranean starry ray.
134.    Raja clavata. Thornback ray..
135.    Raja miraletus. Brown ray.

Ord. Torpediniformes
Fam. Torpedinidae
136.    Torpedo marmorata. Marbled electric ray.
137.    Torpedo nobiliana. Great torpedo ray.
138.    Torpedo torpedo. Ocellate torpedo

About José Antonio Sánchez Iglesias

José Antonio Sánchez se licenció en Biología por la Universidad de Sevilla en 1985. Más tarde, durante varios años, se dedicó a organizar y guiar rutas de senderismo y naturaleza ...

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