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Flower of centaurea sphaerocephala

Flora of Doñana

By José Antonio Sánchez Iglesias

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The development of the flora of a particular place is always closely linked to the types of soils on which it is based. In Doñana there are three main geomorphological units:

Coastal mobile dunes, where coastal and unstabilized sand vegetation develops; significant examples are our juniper formations.

Stabilized sands, covering most of the dry areas where acidophilus cork develops, mainly in the NW of the National Park, and its substitution stages where the cork has disappeared.

Marshes, where vegetation adapted to salt marshes develops and riparian vegetation at freshwater marshes, lagoons and streams.

It should be expanded with a fourth unit, located to the north, consisting mainly of basic clay soils where natural potential vegetation are holm oaks.

We should also mention that the forests of umbrella pine currently occupy significant areas in the Doñana Natural Site, as a result of the reforestation policy carried out in the XVIII and XIX centuries, followed by the mid-twentieth century works with the aim of fixing the mobile dunes, and still continues due to works to replace eucalyptus.

The first floristic catalog published on the Doñana Natural Site (GALIANO & CABEZUDO, 1976) covered only the area occupied by the Doñana Biological Reserve area and included 385 taxa (species and subspecies). A second part of this catalog (CABEZUDO, 1979) brings up the number of taxa of vascular plants of the Reserve at 526. Later, a study on the vegetation of Donana National Park and some adjacent areas was carried out (RIVAS MARTINEZ & al., 1980), whose floristic list includes 733 taxa. In a more recent catalog, which transcends the boundaries of the Doñana National and Natural parks (ESQUIVIAS, 2005), the figure rises to 854 taxa. This latest catalog is based on the vegetation study cited above (RIVAS MARTINEZ & al., 1980) and the Vascular Flora of Western Andalusia (Valdés & al., 1987). To these must be added the numerous floristics contributions occurred within the next 20 years to this publication and that led to the discovery of 3 new endemic taxa for Doñana. The latest attempt at cataloging the Flora of Doñana is the Floristic Catalog of Doñana Natural Site (Valdés & al., 2007). For the complete list of vascular plant species of Doñana you can consult here this document that brings together more than 1,350 taxa.

Below we detail a series of species that stand out in this list for its precarious situation or restricted distribution. Among these are the 4 endemic species of the Doñana Natural Site.

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE
Aristolochia baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Included in tree formations and scrublands in wet areas. Common.

RANUNCULACEAE
Ranunculus peltatus subsp fucoides. Baetic endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Standing or low current water, preferably brackish, vegetation. Uncommon.
Adonis annua subsp.baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Alkaline soil, not very salty. Uncommon.
Thalictrum speciosissimum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Lagoon edges and water courses. Very rare.
Nigella papillosa. Iberian endemism. Marshland. Clay soils. Very common.
Delphinium gracile. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Grassland and open fields. Common.

FUMARIACEAE
Hypecoum littorale. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Sandy soils. Rare.
Fumaria faurei. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Farmland, on alkaline soils. Very common.
Fumaria rupestris. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Scrubland. Very common.
Fumaria sepium. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Fresnedas, Scrubland in wet areas. Very common.
Fumaria calcarata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Scrubland. Rare.

URTICACEAE
Parietaria mauritanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Walls, cliffs, nitrified loose stone, slopes. Common.

CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Corrigiola Littoralis subsp.perez-larae. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Preferably on sandy soils. Common.
Herniaria lusitanica subsp.lusitánica. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal. Common.
Spergularia fimbriata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Coastal salt marshes. Very common.
Spergularia purpurea. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal, weed. On sandy soils. Common.
Loeflingia baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. On sandy soils. Very common.
Arenaria algarbiensis. Iberian endemism (SW of Iberian Peninsule). Littoral. On sandy soils. Common.
Arenaria emarginata subsp.emarginata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. On sandy soils. Very common.
Arenaria hispanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Preferabily on clay-loamy soils. Rare.
Arenaria conimbricensis subsp.conimbricensis. Iberian endemism. Littoral. On sandy soils. Very common.
Silene tridentata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands. Rare.
Silene scabriflora subsp.scabriflora. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. On acid grasslands. Very common.
Silene micropetala. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. On acid grasslands. Common.
Silene gracilis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. On sandy soils. Littoral and inland sands. Very common.
Silene littorea subsp.littorea. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Coastal sands. Common.
Silene rubella subsp.rubella. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Arvense. On clay soils. Very common.
Silene pseudoatocion. Anthropic (Iberian-magreb endemism). Marshland. Grasslands of alkaline soils. Very rare. It seems to be an introduced species.
Dianthus hinoxianus. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Rocky, stony grounds and sandy areas. Very common.

PLUMBAGINACEAE
Armeria gaditana. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Depressions and grasslands with temporary ponding. Common.
Armeria velutina. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Slopes, road edges, rock roses on sandy soils. Common.
Armeria hirta. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Sandy soils. Very common.
Armeria hispalensis. Baetic endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Wasteland, erials, sandy soils. Very common.
Limonium algarvense. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Coastal salt marshes. Common.

MALVACEAE
Malva hispanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Arvense, grasslands and open areas in scublandsl. Common.
Malva cretica subsp.althaeoides. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Degraded areas. Rare.
Malope trífida. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Cultivated and uncultivated fields, slopes. Very common.
Lavatera triloba subsp.triloba. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Relatively wet and salty areas. Rare.

CISTACEAE
Cistus psilosepalus. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Acid soils in wet and shaded areas. Very common.
Cistus libanotis. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Scrubland on acid soils. Very common.
Halimium halimifolium subsp.multiflorum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Scrubland on sandy soils. Common.
Halimium calycinum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Scrubland and undergrowth. Very common.
Tuberaria commutata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Sandy acid soils. Common.
Tuberaria brevipes. Baetic endemism. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands on coastal sands. Common.
Tuberaria macrosepala. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands on sandy acid soils. Common.
Tuberaria echioides. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Terofitic grasslands on acid soils. Common.

CAPPARIDACEAE
Cleome violacea. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Open areas on sandy soils. Very common.

BRASSICACEAE
Malcolmia triloba. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Dry open areas, preferably on sandy soils. Very common.
Rorippa valdes-bermejoi. Doñana endemism. Littoral (La Rocina Stream), Marshland. Water course edges and boggy areas. Very rare.
Iberis pectinata. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Cultivated areas, road edges, open areas. Common.
Biscutella auriculata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Grasslands, slopes, cultivated areas, road edges, forest meadows and scrubland. Common.
Biscutella baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Grasslands open areas in scrubland. Common.
Diplotaxis catholica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal, arvense, road edges. Very common.
Diplotaxis siifolia subsp.siifolia. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, marshland. Ruderal, arvense, road edges. Very common.
Diplotaxis virgata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Arvense, road edges, ruderal. Very common.
Brassica barrelieri. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Acid sandy soils. Very common.
Brassica oxyrrhina. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Nitrified sandy soils. Common.

RESEDACEAE
Reseda media. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Wet sandy soils. Very common.

ERICACEAE
Erica australis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Undergrowth de Cork oak forests, Scrubland, on acid soils. Rare.
Erica umbellata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. heath and rock rose areas. Common.

ROSACEAE
Sanguisorba hybrida. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Undergrowth of cork oak and evergreen forests and substitution scrubland.
Aphanes maroccana. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Áreas cubiertas, sobre suelo arenoso. Very common.

FABACEAE
Genista ancistrocarpa. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Scrubland, on hydro peat substrate near the sea. Common..
Genista hirsuta subsp.hirsuta. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Scrubland on acid soils. Very common.
Genista triacanthos. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Undergrowth in cork oak forests, rarely in heath on hydro peat substrate, on acid soils. Very common.
Genista tridens subsp.tridens. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Meadows in the cork oak forest, scrubland. Common.
Retama monosperma. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Juniper formations on coastal sands, marshland edges. Common.
Retama sphaerocarpa. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Holm oak forests and its degraded scrublands. Very common.
Cytisus grandiflorus subsp.grandiflorus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Scrubland on sandy soils. Very common.
Cytisus grandiflorus subsp. cabezudoi. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral.
Adenocarpus gibbsianus. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Littoral. Cleared pine and cork oak forests on stabilized dunes. Rare.
Ulex eriocladus. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Heath y rock rose on acid soils. Common.
Ulex australis subsp.australis. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Littoral. Coastal scrubland on sandy soils. Very common.
Stauracanthus genistoides. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Scrubbland on coastal sands. Common.
Astragalus algarbiensis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Coastal grasslands on sandy soils. Very rare.
Erophaca baetica subsp.baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Scrubland on acid soils. Very common.
Lathyrus nudicaulis. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Riparian formation on hydro peat substrates. Rare.
Ononis spinosa subsp.australis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Nitrified grasslands, wastelands and road edges. Common.
Ononis pinnata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Pine and cork oak forests and wastelands on coastal sands. Common.
Ononis cossoniana. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Coastal sands. Very common.
Ononis baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Coastal sands. Very common.
Ononis broterana. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Dunes and littoral inland sands. Common.
Ononis viscosa subsp.brachycarpa. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. cultivated areas, scrubland and nitrified areas. Very common.
Ononis viscosa subsp.subcordata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Open areas in the scrubland. Rare.
Lotus arenarius. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Coastal sandy soils or with littoral origin. Very common.
Hymenocarpos cornicina. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Ruderal grasslands on sandy soils. Very common.
Hymenocarpos hamosus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Dunes and coastal sands and more rarely inland sands. Common.<
Ornithopus sativus subsp.sativus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Grasslands on sandy substrates. Common.
Ornithopus sativus subsp.isthmocarpus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands on sandy substrates.Very common.
Ornithopus sativus subsp.macrorrhyncus. Iberian endemism. Grasslands on acid sands. Rare.
Hippocrepis rupestris. Baetic endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Loamy and calcareous substrates. Rare.

LYTHRACEAE
Lythrum baeticum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Terofitic grasslands on wet soils. Rare.

THYMELAEACEAE
Thymelaea villosa. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Marshland edges on acid sandy soils. Rare.
Thymelaea salsa. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands. Very common.

SANTALACEAE
Osyris lanceolata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Scrubland, dunes and coastal cliffs. Very common.

RAFFLESIACEAE
Cytinus hypocistis subsp.macranthus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Parasitic on rock roses. Rock rose scrublands. Very common.

EUPHORBIACEAE
Euphorbia medicaginea. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. cultivated areas and nitrified grasslands on alkaline soils. Very common.
Euphorbia transtagana. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Cork oak forests and thermophile heath of sandy wet soils. Very rare.
Euphorbia boetica. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Acid sandy soils, also nitrified soils. Very common.
Mercurialis elliptica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Stabilized sandy soils. Common.

GERANIACEAE
Erodium primulaceum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Arvense and ruderal. Common.

APIACEAE
Eryngium tenue. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Dry areas on acid sandy soils. Very common.
Eryngium galioides. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Areas with seasonal flooding. Common.
Eryngium aquifolium. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Dry areas a little nitrified. Very common.
Conopodium marianum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Grasslands and forests, preferably on acid soils. Very common.
Pimpinella villosa. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Degraded juniper formations on sandy soils a little nitrified. Common.
Elaeoselinum foetidum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Undergrowth and scrubland; edaphic indifferent. Common.
Margotia gummifera. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Coastal or inland sandy soils. Common.
Distichoselinum tenuifolium. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Very degraded shrublands, preferably on alkaline soils. Very common.
Thapsia transtagana. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Nitrified grasslands, road edges, meadows in forests. Very common.
Daucus crinitus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Open sunny areas, preferably on acid soils. Very common.
Daucus arcanus. Doñana endemism. Littoral. Shady grasslands. Very common.

BORAGINACEAE
Anchusa undulata subsp.viciosoi. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Open areas, grasslands, acid sandy soils. Very common.
Anchusa calcarea. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Coastal sandy soils. Very common.
Myosotis debilis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Boggy and wet areas on acid soils. Common
Myosotis welwitschii. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Boggy or very wet areas on acid soils and water courses. Rare.

LAMIACEAE
Phlomis purpurea. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Scrubland. Very common.
Ballota hirsuta subsp.hirsuta. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal, road edges, nitrified soils. Common.
Stachys germanica subsp.cordigera. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Alkaline soils. Common.
Cleonia lusitánica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Preferably on alkaline soils. Common.
Sideritis arborescens subsp.paulii. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. On alkaline or sandy soils. Rare.
Thymus mastichina subsp.masticina. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Scrubland. Rare.
Thymus albicans. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Littoral. On subcoastal sands, under pines and cork oaks. Rare.
Thymus mastichina subsp.donyanae. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Littoral. Coastal sandy soils. Very common.
Lavandula stoechas subsp.luisieri. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Scrubland on dry sands. Common.
Lavandula pedunculata subsp.sampaiana. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. In scrublands on sandy soils. Very common.
Teucrium aristatum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Alkaline sandy soils. Common.
Teucrium lusitanicum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Littoral. Scrubland on alkaline soils. Very common.
Teucrium haenseleri. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Fallow fields, slopes. Very common.

PLANTAGINACEAE
Plantago algarbiensis. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Little humid sandy areas and endorheic y occasional endorheic basins. Rare.

SCROPHULARIACEAE
Scrophularia auriculata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Boggy and wet areas. Very common.
Scrophularia sambucifolia. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. road edges y steep banks in deep and wet soils. Common.
Antirrhinum majus subsp.cirrhigenum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Sandy soils in wet areas. Rare.
Antirrhinum graniticum subsp.onubensis. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Scrubland and open areas, silicicolous. Rare.
Linaria hirta. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. cultivated areas and fallows. Clay soils. Very common.
Linaria viscosa. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Open areas, cultivated areas, fallows on acid soils, preferabily sandy. Very common.
Linaria tursica. Doñana endemism. Littoral. Coastal sands. Very common.
Linaria pedunculata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Beaches and embryonic dunes. Very common.
Linaria amethystea subsp.amethystea. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. cultivated areas and fallows. Very common.
Linaria latifolia. Baetic endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Arvense; clay slopes. Very common.
Linaria munbyana. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Open areas, On sandy soils del Littoral. Very rare.
Linaria oblongifolia. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Clay soils. Very common.
Verbascum giganteum subsp.martinezii. Baetic endemism (costas de Cádiz y Huelva). Littoral. Acid sandy soils. Very common.
Gratiola linifolia. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Acid peat and wet soils . Very common.
Verbascum masguindali. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Coastal and inland sandy soils. Very common.
Pedicularis sylvatica subsp.lusitanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Hydro peat soils. Very common.

OROBANCHACEAE
Orobanche foetida. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. On herbaceous legumes. Very common.

CAMPANULACEAE
Campanula lusitanica subsp.lusitanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Terofitic grasslands, steep slopes, road edges. Common.

CAPRIFOLIACEAE
Lonicera periclymenum subsp.hispanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Wet areas, groves and water course edges. Common.

DIPSACACEAE
Dipsacus comosus. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area. Wet meadows and riparian groves. Very common.
Scabiosa galianoi. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Open areas on preferably alkaline soils. Common.
Lomelosia simplex subsp.dentate. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Arvense and ruderal. Common.

ASTERACEAE
Pulicaria arabica subsp.hispanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal. Very common.
Filago pygmaea subsp.ramosissima. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. On sandy soils. Very common.
Filago lusitánica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. On open areas and wastelands. Very common.
Helichrysum italicum subsp.picardii. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Sandy sea soils. Very common.
Otospermum glabrum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands on clay soils. Very common.
Glossopappus macrotus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Grasslands. Rare.
Heteranthemis viscidehirta. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Grasslands on coastal sands. Common.
Reichardia gaditana. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Arenales costeros. Very common.
Andryala arenaria. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Grasslands on sandy soils. Very common.
Leontodon maroccanus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal y arvense on salty clay soils. Common.
Scorzoneroides salzmannii. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands on acid soils. Common.
Avellara fistulosa. Baetic endemism (Gaditano-Onubo-Algarviense sector). Littoral, Marshland. Oligotrophic boggy soils. Rare. Getting rarer in the Doñana Natural Site.
Helminthotheca comosa subsp.comosa. Baetic endemism. Littoral. Preferabily on alkaline soils. Very common.
Carduus bourgeanus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal, nitrophilus. Very common.
Carduus meonanthus subsp.meonanthus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands, sandy soils of littoral origin. Common.
Cynara humilis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Open areas. Very common.
Onopordum nervosum. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Ruderal, preferabily on clay soils. Common.
Onopordum dissectum subsp.murbeckii. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Coastal sands. Very rare.
Cheirolophus uliginosus. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Water courses and hydro peat soils. Very common.
Centaurea ornata subsp.ornata. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Open areas. Rare.
Centaurea exarata. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Wet and sandy soils. Very common.
Centaurea sphaerocephala. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Coastal sands. Very common.
Centaurea eriophora. Iberian-magreb endemism. Marshland. Grasslands and little nitrified areas. Very rare.
Centaurea diluta. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. On soils normally alkaline. Common.
Centaurea pullata subsp.baetica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. On sandy or clay soils. Common.
Klasea integrifolia. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Undergrowth. Common.
Echinops strigosus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands, preferably on alkaline soils. Common.

ARACEAE
Biarum arundanum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands, preferabily on alkaline soils. Very common.

JUNCACEAE
Juncus rugosus. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Boggy meadows. Very common.
Juncus emmanuelis. Iberian endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Caños edges and little salty lagoons. Very common.
Juncus donyanae. Doñana endemism. Stream edges and little salty caños. Rare.

CYPERACEAE
Rhynchospora modesti-lucennoi. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Hydro peat soils. Very common.
Isolepis pseudosetacea. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Boggy or very wet sandy soils. Very common.
Carex paniculata subsp.lusitanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Very weat soils and water course edges. Common.

POACEAE
Puccinellia tenuifolia. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Áreas costeras no directamente sometidas al flujo mareal. Very common.
Festuca ampla subsp.ampla. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Grasslands. Very common.
Festuca ampla subsp.simplex. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Grasslands on sandy coastal soils. Common.
Vulpia fontquerana. Endémismo Ibérico. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands on sandy soils. Common.
Micropyropsis tuberosa. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Higrofitic grasslands; freshwater marsh edges. Rare.
Trisetaria dufourei. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Open areas on sandy soils. Bastante Common.
Gaudinia hispanica. Baetic endemism. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands on open areas on sandy soils. Common.
Aira uniaristata. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Terofitic grasslands in open areas on acid soils. Very common.
Molineriella australis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Terofitic grasslands on acid soils. Very common.
Corynephorus macrantherus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Terofitic grasslands in open areas on sandy soils. Common.
Neoschischkinia reuteri. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Grasslands perilagunares y de bordes de cursos de agua y zonas húmedas. Common.
Anisantha macranthera. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Coastal sands. Rare.
Celtica gigantea subsp.gigantean. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. High grasslands on sandy soils. Common.
Celtica gigantea subsp.donyanae. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. High grasslands on sandy soils. Very common.

LILIACEAE
Fritillaria lusitanica subsp.stenophylla. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Scrubland and grasslands on sandy dry soils. Common.
Ornithogalum baeticum. Iberian endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral, Marshland. Common.
Allium pruinatum. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Sandy soils. Rare.
Asphodelus ramosus subsp.distalis. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Grasslands, open areas in scrubland and forests with deep soils. Very common.
Asphodelus aestivus. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Wet grasslands and open areas in scrubland, boggy depressions and water course edges.

AMARYLLIDACEAE
Narcissus bulbocodium subsp.obesus. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Boggy or wet soils. Rare.
Narcissus cavanillesii. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral. Sandy-loamy soils. Rare.
Leucojum trichophyllum. Iberian-magreb endemism. Littoral, Marshland. Acid sandy soils. Common.

IRIDACEAE
Crocus serotinus subsp.serotinus. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Grassland on littoral sandy soils. Very common.
Romulea ramiflora subsp.gaditana. Iberian endemism. Littoral. Grassland on littoral sandy soils. Common.

ORCHIDACEAE
Epipactis lusitanica. Iberian-magreb endemism. Condado-Aljarafe sub-area, Littoral. Forest meadows, on acid soils. Common.

About José Antonio Sánchez Iglesias

José Antonio Sánchez se licenció en Biología por la Universidad de Sevilla en 1985. Más tarde, durante varios años, se dedicó a organizar y guiar rutas de senderismo y naturaleza ...

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